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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Research

Vol. 6, Issue 1, Part A (2024)

Antibacterial activity of ethanol and methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Aloe barbadensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infected patients

Author(s):

Osondu Ominyi Agbo, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Kenneth Eze Etu, Peter Livinus NseAbasi, Kevin Oguji Elom, Ikemesit Udeme Peter and Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha

Abstract:

Introduction: Wound infection is debilitating to patients and a major cause of prolong hospitalization due to the increasing failure of antibiotics treatment. With the ever-increasing emergence of multiple antibiotics resistance among wound isolates, there is a limited therapeutics option for such bacteria strains thus making the need for exploring possible alternatives plant-based antibacterial agent a necessity. This study was aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanol and methanol extract of V. amygdalina, O. gratissimum and A. barbadensis against wound isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

Materials and Methods: A total of two hundred (200) infected wound sample were collected and analyzed using Standard microbiological techniques for identification of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the plant extracts on the test isolates was determine using Agar well diffusion method.

Results and Conclusion: The infected wound sample yield 21 (10.5%) and 14 (7.0%) S. aureus and P. aeruginosa respectively. The methanolic extract of V. amgydalina showed antimicrobial activity with the mean inhibitory zone diameter of 10-22 mm against S. aureus and 8-18mm against P. aeruginosa. Ethanolic extract of V. amgydalina was also found to be potent and had antimicrobial activity against the test organism with the mean inhibitory zone diameter (IZD) of 6-18mm against S. aureus and 6-16mm against P. aeruginosa respectively. Both methanolic and ethanolic extracts of V. amygdalina was found to be more potent, inhibiting all the bacterial isolates, thus, showing higher antimicrobial activity compared to the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of O. gratissimum with the peak mean inhibitory zone diameter of 2-10mm against S. aureus and 2-4mm against P. aeruginosa in contrast to the control drug (ciprofloxacin) with mean inhibition zone diameter of 12mm. The crude extracts of methanolic and ethanolic of A. barbadensis also showed minimal antimicrobial activity with mean inhibition zone diameter of 2-6mm and 2-4mm against S. aureus and 2-4mm and 2mm against P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts of V. amygdalina on the test organism were 6.25mg/ml against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of both methanol and ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum ranged between 25mg/ml - 50mg/ml against S. aureus while, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of methanol and ethanol crude extracts of A. barbadensis against test organisms also increased in the following order; ethanol < methanol. Our study report the in-vitro antibacterial activities of V. amygdalina extracts, the leaf extracts efficacy could ameliorate or enhance in-vivo wound healing and could be used as broad spectrum antibiotics in the management of wound infections owing to it phytomedicinal properties. A. barbadensis and O. gratissimum were effective at higher concentration, which indicate medicinal potential that requires further exploration of the plant extracts in wound infection treatments, considering their antimicrobial effects on bacterial isolates.

Pages: 54-60  |  96 Views  32 Downloads


International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Research
How to cite this article:
Osondu Ominyi Agbo, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Kenneth Eze Etu, Peter Livinus NseAbasi, Kevin Oguji Elom, Ikemesit Udeme Peter and Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha. Antibacterial activity of ethanol and methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Aloe barbadensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infected patients. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Pharm. Res. 2024;6(1):54-60. DOI: 10.33545/26647168.2024.v6.i1a.69
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